A pioneer in the fields of statistics and probability theory, Richard von Mises (1883–1953) made notable advances in boundary-layer-flow theory and airfoil design. This text on compressible flow, unfinished upon his sudden death, was subsequently completed in accordance with his plans, and von Mises' first three chapters were augmented with a survey of the theory of steady plane flow. Suitable as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students — as well as a reference for professionals — Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow examines the fundamentals of high-speed flows, with detailed considerations of general theorems, conservation equations, waves, shocks, and nonisentropic flows. In this, the final work of his distinguished career, von Mises summarizes his extensive knowledge of a central branch of fluid mechanics. Characteristically, he pays particular attention to the basics, both conceptual and mathematical. The novel concept of a specifying equation clarifies the role of thermodynamics in the mechanics of compressible fluids. The general theory of characteristics receives a remarkably complete and simple treatment, with detailed applications, and the theory of shocks as asymptotic phenomena appears within the context of rational mechanics.