The founder of modern nursing expressed her revolutionary ideas of hospital reform in these two essays, published in 1859 and presented the previous year at the Social Science Congress. During the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale achieved renown as The Lady with the Lamp, the tireless caretaker of wounded soldiers. Afterward, Nightingale searched Europe for innovations to help the army improve its hospital care. This report of her findings and suggestions had a profound effect on the medical community and reestablished the author as an international healthcare authority. Despite the advances in medical knowledge since Nightingale's era, her common-sense approach continues to form a solid foundation for nursing. In these essays she voices the importance of hygiene―fresh air and water, cleanliness, proper drainage, and ample light―as well as ongoing consideration for patients' feelings. Nightingale's ability to effectively articulate her ideas impressed her contemporaries and continues to influence modern readers. This volume serves as a companion to Nightingale's classic of nursing literature, Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not.