The theory of uniform distribution began with Hermann Weyl's celebrated paper of 1916. In later decades, the theory moved beyond its roots in diophantine approximations to provide common ground for topics as diverse as number theory, probability theory, functional analysis, and topological algebra. This book summarizes the theory's development from its beginnings to the mid-1970s, with comprehensive coverage of both methods and their underlying principles. A practical introduction for students of number theory and analysis as well as a reference for researchers in the field, this book covers uniform distribution in compact spaces and in topological groups, in addition to examinations of sequences of integers and polynomials. Notes at the end of each section contain pertinent bibliographical references and a brief survey of additional results. Exercises range from simple applications of theorems to proofs of propositions that expand upon results stated in the text.