Vol. 2 of a monumental 4-volume set covers mathematics and the physical world, mathematics and social science, and the laws of chance, with non-technical essays by and about scores of eminent mathematicians, economists, scientists, and others. Individual articles on "Mathematics of Motion," by Galileo Galilei; "Mathematics of Heredity," by Gregor Mendel; "Mathematics of Population and Food," by Thomas Robert Malthus, and many more. Informative commentary by noted mathematics scholar James R. Newman precedes each essay. Numerous figures.