This two-part treatment introduces the general principles of the Monte Carlo method within a unified mathematical point of view, applying them to problems in neutron transport. It describes several efficiency-enhancing approaches, including the method of superposition and simulation of the adjoint equation based on reciprocity. The first half of the book presents an exposition of the fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods, examining discrete and continuous random walk processes and standard variance reduction techniques. The second half of the text focuses directly on the methods of superposition and reciprocity, illustrating their applications to specific neutron transport problems. Topics include the computation of thermal neutron fluxes and the superposition principle in resonance escape computations.